Site assessment wind and sea

The development of new locations for inland and offshore wind energy utilization requires a detailed characterization of environmental conditions. Knowledge of this is indispensable for wind energy turbine design and the success of wind farm projects, focusing on land, on the planning of wind farms with large hub heights in hilly or wooded areas. Questions arising in this field of potential assessment, resource definition and load assumptions are processed, among others, using a 200 m high measuring mast and several LiDAR-Systems (laser supported wind speed measuring).

Fraunhofer IWES has developed innovative and adapted measuring and analysis methods, for offshore wind energy utilization, for the on-site conditions of wind, waves, current and the sea floor, as well as methods for recording the ecological effects of offshore wind farms. New systems for measuring wind up to great heights are based on LiDAR systems operated from ships or buoys. A modern measuring method for geophysical construction-ground exploration has also been developed which specifically meets offshore wind industry requirements.

Fraunhofer IWES North-West conducts Lidar measurement campaigns for wind resource assessments. Lidar systems allow ground based remote sensing of wind speed and direction in several heights up to 200 m without need for a measurement mast - this saves money and time in project development.

The service range comprises planning, execution and analysis of Lidar wind measurement campaigns with a Leosphere Windcube v2 Lidar system. For specific applications the Galion G-4000 Scanning Lidar with up to 4000 m measurement range is available.

Highest data quality is ensured by verification according to IEC 61400-12-1 from accredited measurement institutes. An autonomous power supply allows measurements at sites without grid connection.  

  • Ground-based wind measurements in multiple heights up to 200 m without mast
  • Suitable for resource assessment, e.g. according to the German TR6 guideline
  • Full service contract offered: from campaign planning to data analysis




LiDAR buoy

© Photo Thomas Viergutz


• Wind velocity measurements up to 200 m
• Additional measurements available: waves, currents, temperature etc.
• Full service contract including permission, deployment, service, data transfer, quality control
• Wind resource assessment based on these data
• Measurement campaigns from one week to one year possible.

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Measurement campaigns for an offshore wind resource assessment with the in-house developed Fraunhofer IWES Wind Lidar buoy include the complete yield assessment for the development of an offshore wind project. The floating system integrates a Wind-cube® v2 Lidar device in an adapted marine buoy. Its compact design, an autonomous power system and an efficient data processing and communication system ensure reliable and flexible offshore wind measurement campaigns at minimal costs. The motion correction algorithm guarantees high data accuracy and measurement uncertainties similar to those for offshore mast measurements. in all project phases including planning, installation and operation of offshore
wind farms.

Ship-based LiDAR system

For flexible wind measurements under offshore conditions, the "ship-based Lidar system" facilitates the application of standard wind lidar technology on ships. Whereas measurements from fixed platforms or anchored buoys are a recommendable solution for long-term applications, a ship-based solution is best when a ship is in use at the location of interest anyway or when a measurement is needed for a rather short period only.

A prerequisite for a precise measurement from a moving ship is the correction of the measured data with respect to the concurrent motions. Hence, an integrated motion-measurement system is an essential part of the developed Ship-Lidar System. Data for the up to six degrees of freedom of the system placed on the ship are recorded with high resolution, processed and applied for a correction of the concurrently recorded lidar data.

Aquadopp units measure the direction and speed of the current

© Photo Jan Meier

Detailed characterization of the current and wave conditions is vital for designing offshore wind turbines. Site assessment with accurate prediction of the expected energy output lowers the technical and financial risks for project planners and investors. The current conditions around the foundations of offshore wind turbines determine not only the loads on the structure but also cause sediment transport close to the structure which can lead to pitting.

Detailed analysis of current data has highlighted the complex spatial and time variability of sea currents. The cause of current variations are the effects of turbulence, waves and wind on the avarage current. As a consequence, the electrical output of the turbine varies considerabely and high dynamic loads on the rotor and structure can occur. Accurate analysis of the current field is limited by the low spatial and time resolution of the ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) method that is currently used - but can be improved significantly by using acoustic measuring units. In the direct vicinity of the foundation of an offshore wind turbine they allow detailed investigation of the interaction between the structure and current and the resulting sediment transport.


Entwicklung neuer Prüfmethoden zur Abbildung der Degradationsprozesse von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen und Aufbau einer entsprechenden Test- und Analyse-Infrastruktur für WEA-Komponenten
Kupferschmidt, C.; Collmann, M.; Kranz, O. (Conference contribution)

Ziegahn, K.-F. ; Gesellschaft für Umweltsimulation -GUS-, Pfinztal:
Umwelteinflüsse erfassen, simulieren, bewerten. 45. Jahrestagung der GUS 2016 : 45. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Umweltsimulation, 16. März bis 18. März 2016, Karlsruhe; mit 24 Beiträgen
Karlsruhe: GUS, 2016
ISBN: 978-3-9816286-7-8

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Das ERA-NET+ Projekt NEWA - The New European Wind Atlas
Gottschall, J.; Lange, B.; Kühn, P.; Callies, D.; Heinemann, D.; Witha, B.; Steinfeld, G. (Presentation)

Vortrag gehalten auf der vierten Fachtagung Energiemeteorologie, 20.04.2016, Bremerhaven

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Fraunhofer IWES Wind-LiDAR-Buoy
Lange, Bernhard (Presentation)

Presentation held at IEA Wind Task 32 Workshop on Floating Lidar Systems: Current Technology Status and Requirements for Improved Maturity, February 23rd and 24th, 2016, Blyth, UK

Link Fraunhofer Publica

IEA Wind Annex 32 Work Package 1.5 State-of-the-Art Report: Recommended Practices for Floating Lidar Systems
Bischoff, O.; Gottschall, J.; Gribben, B.; Hughes, J.; Stein, D.; Verhoef, H.; Würth, I. (Report)

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Meer - Wind - Strom. Forschung am ersten deutschen Offshore-Windpark alpha ventus
Beteiligt: Durstewitz, Michael (Hrsg.); Lange, Bernhard (Hrsg.) (Book)

Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien, 2016, XXV, 260 S.
ISBN: 978-3-658-09782-0 (Print)
ISBN: 978-3-658-09783-7 (Online)
ISBN: 3-658-09782-5

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Neue Erkenntnisse zur Meteorologie aus FINO-Wind
Bastigkeit, I.; Leiding, T. (Presentation)

Vortrag gehalten beim FINO-Wind Abschlussworkshop, Hamburg, 15.04.2016

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Standardized assessment of meteorological data from FINO platforms
Bastigkeit, I.; Bégué, F.; Frühmann, R.; Gates, L.; Herklotz, K.; Leiding, T.; Müller, S.; Neumann, T.; Schwenk, P.; Sedlatschek, R.; Senet, C.; Tinz, B.; Wilts, F. (Poster)

Link Fraunhofer Publica


Defining weather windows for offshore installations (Journal article)
Wolken-Möhlmann, Gerrit; Bruns, Thomas; Heitmann-Bacza, Carola

Poster presented at 4. Fachtagung Energiemeteorologie 2016, 20.-22. April 2016, Bremerhaven

Standardisierung meteorologischer Daten der FINO-Plattformen

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Design tool for offshore wind farm cluster planning (Presentation)
Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Madsen, Peter Hauge; et all.

Paper presented at EWEA 2015, Europe's Premier Wind Energy Event, 17 - 20 November 2015, Paris, France

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Floating-LiDAR-Systeme für den Einsatz in der Offshore-Windindustrie (Presentation); Gottschall, Julia

Vortrag gehalten bei der ForWind Vortragsreihe, Vorträge zu Themen der Windenergie, Wintersemester 2014/2015, 29. Januar 2015, Oldenburg

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Fraunhofer IWES Wind LIDAR Buoy Validation (Presentation)
Gottschall, Julia; Wolken-Möhlmann, Gerrit; Viergutz, Thomas; Rudolph, Claudia; Lange, Bernhard

Vortrag gehalten bei der ForWind Vortragsreihe, Vorträge zu Themen der Windenergie, Wintersemester 2014/2015, 29. Januar 2015, Oldenburg

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Innovative measurement technologies for met-ocean and soil conditions (Presentation)
Lange, Bernhard; Gottschall, Julia; Rudolph, Claudia; Wolken-Möhlmann, Gerrit; Viergutz, Thomas; Meier, Florian; Spieß, Volkhard

Presentation held at the 12th Deep Sea Offshore Wind R&D Conference, EERA DeepWind'2015, 4 - 6 February 2015, Trondheim

Link Fraunhofer Publica

The New European Wind Atlas (NEWA) (Presentation)
Lange, Bernhard; Gottschall, Julia

Presentation held at the IRPWind Conference, 28 September 2015, Amsterdam

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Potential applications of the Fraunhofer IWES Wind Lidar Buoy (Presentation); Gottschall, Julia; Wolken-Möhlmann, Gerrit; Viergutz, Thomas; Rudolph, Claudia; Lange, Bernhard

An innovative and flexible wind measurement system. Presentation held at the RAVE Offshore Wind R&D Conference 2015, 13-15 October, Bremerhaven

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Potential of estimating relative density by measuring shear wave velocity in field and in laboratory (Conference contribution)
Biryaltseva, T.; Kreiter, S.; Mörz, T.; Lunne, T.

Meyer, V.:
Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics III. Vol.2 : Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics, ISFOG 2015; Oslo, Norway, 10-12 June 2015
Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 2015
ISBN: 978-1-138-02848-7 (Print)
ISBN: 978-1-315-67551-0 (eBook)
ISBN: 978-1-138-02852-4 (Volume 2)

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Ship-lidar systems for wake measurements (Presentation)
Wolken-Möhlmann, Gerrit; Gottschall, Julia

Presentation held at RAVE Offshore Wind R&D Conference 2015, Bremerhaven

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Standardization of meteorological data from FINO offshore platforms (Poster); Leiding, T.; Bastigkeit, I.; Bégué, F.; Gates, L.; Herklotz, K.; Müller, S.; Neumann, T.; Schwenk, P.; Senet, C.; Tinz, B.; Wilts, F.

Poster presented at EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria, 12 -17 April 2015

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Standardized assessment of meteorological data from Fino platforms (Presentation); Bégué, F.; Bastigkeit, I.; Leiding, T.; Müller, S.; Neumann, T.; Schwenk, P.; Tinz, B.

Presentation held at RAVE Offshore Wind R&D Conference 2015, 13 - 15 October 2015, Bremerhaven, Germany

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Study on wind resources at mid-altitude (Presentation)
Bastigkeit, I.; Rohde, P.; Wolken-Möhlmann, G.; Gambier, A.

Presenation held at AWEC 2015, 6th International Airborne Wind Energy Conference, 15-16 June 2015, Delft

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Testing floating LiDARs offshore - as a prerequisite for a cost-efficient wind resource assessment (Conference contribution)
Gottschall, Julia; Wolken-Möhlmann, Gerrit; Viergutz, Thomas; Rudolph, Claudia; Lange, B.

Paper presented at EWEA Offshore Conference 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark, 10-12 March 2015

Link Fraunhofer Publica

Weather risk optimization over the offshore wind farm project life cycle (Presentation); Wiggert, Marcel; Wolken-Möhlmann, Gerrit

Presentation held at DEWEK 2015, 20 May 2015, Bremen

Link Fraunhofer Publica